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See some of Saul Fenchel's eminent domain articles covering various subjects in Eminent Domain Condemnation.

What about damages to property that the government has not taken -- the remainder property?

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The damages can be both "direct" and "indirect". Direct damage is the value of the property physically taken. Indirect damage, which is also known as "severance" or "consequential" damage, is the loss in value to the Remainder Property caused by the direct taking of a portion of the property (e.g. loss of frontage or access) or by reason of the use to which the taken parcel is being put by the government (e.g., a landfill or an incinerator).1

1There is a technical difference between “severance” and “consequential” damages. Severance damages represent the loss in value (i.e., diminution) in the utility or potential of the remainder land by reason of the taking. Consequential damages are the damages caused to the remainder land resulting from the use of the land taken by the government. For example, if the government takes part of your property to erect an incinerator or toxic waste facility, the resulting damages are consequential damages.

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